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A look at curricular adaptations for
students with SEN
Un recorrido a las adaptaciones curriculares en
estudiantes con NEE
América María Alvarado Jara
Msc. Unidad Educativa Presidente José Luis Tamayo. Daule, Ecuador,,
Giovanni Antonio Freire Jaramillo
Msc. Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte, Guayaquil, Ecuador,,
Education is an intentional activity that involves both the subject who
learns and the object to be learned, it takes into account several
participants in the mentioned phenomenon and has a social scope
from the links that arise with other people, in this sense there is a
relationship that is generated between different agents in which there
is a social space of coexistence, it has the pretension of positive
acceptance of the other, social dynamics is present at all times and
seeks the inclusion of all learners through a process that requires
active and democratic practices for the acquisition of meaningful
learning, in this scenario the Psychopedagogy seeks the study of the
student's mind, their intellectual, physical, emotional, social
resources, also aims to make a call for commitment to the executing
entities, facilitators of this transmission of new knowledge.
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La educación es una actividad intencionada que implica tanto al sujeto
que aprende como al objeto por ser aprendido, toma en cuenta a varios
partícipes en el mencionado fenómeno y que tiene un alcance social
desde los vínculos que se suscitan con otras personas, en este sentido
hay una relación que se genera entre distintos agentes en la cual se da
un espacio social de convivencia, tiene la pretensión de aceptación
positiva del otro, la dinámica social está presente en todo momento y
busca la inclusión de todos los aprendientes por medio de un proceso
que requiere prácticas activas y democráticas para la adquisición de
un aprendizaje significativo, en este escenario la Psicopedagogía busca
el estudio de la mente del estudiante, sus recursos intelectuales,
sicos, emotivos, sociales, además pretende hacer un llamado de
compromiso a los entes ejecutores, facilitadores de esta transmisión
de conocimiento nuevo.
Keywords / Palabras clave
Psychopedagogy, hyperactivity, disorder
Psicopedagogía, hiperactivdad, trastorno
The current knowledge society is producing changes at great speed as
the loss of values and social norms that are generating a constant
increase of students with behavioral or emotional problems, affected
in their academic performance; largely produced by the effects of
pandemic 2 that have induced humanity to a social distancing and
health and economic crisis, consequently, educational problems;
therefore, the psycho-pedagogist must reimagine new approaches,
strategies, methods, interventions and curricular adaptations that
ensure quality education for a more humane and inclusive world.
Some behaviors, at certain times, are important for the development
and formation of the child's own identity such as the acquisition of
motor skills, self-control and personal development; however, there
are cases in which the frequency and intensity of their emotions are
clearly above normal for their age.
These problems, in most cases, can be explained as a mismatch within
the family, school or social context, because if it remains over time,
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children or young people can be identified as problematic and are
labeled or stigmatized with other problems that would hinder the
possibilities of adaptation and normal development.
Within the educational context, psychopedagogy, remember that,
having a space to enable the integration of people to the contexts, is
unobjectionably linked to education, but its primary intention is the
search for spaces of full and constructive interaction, at individual and
collective level, without losing sight of the empathic and dynamic. At
this point it can be mentioned that psychopedagogy plays a very
important role as an aid to the management of the educational process,
for example, the participation of individuals where they inevitably
expose their own way of learning and notwithstanding that must
undoubtedly prevail in the search for a fair teaching, with quality and
warmth, within a framework of tolerance, respect for the different
ways of learning that each person has, the promotion of eliminating
prejudices and resistance that usually arise from the role of the
teacher, either due to professional reluctance or ignorance of how to
act appropriately in front of a student with special educational needs.
The attention of children and adolescents is a priority and even more
so if the students suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD, since they are vulnerable children and adolescents and are
protected by the Constitution, Laws, Regulations, Ministerial
Agreements, and International Standards, then the teacher is the one
who must apply as a general rule the first step to help a person to
overcome a difficulty and especially if it is related to ADHD, so it must
be very clear where the problem is, create a strategy and act to prevent.
The Department of Student Counseling DECE, will intervene following
the following axes: Detection - Intervention - Follow-up - Referral -
Promotion - Prevention.
For which the following objective is proposed: the teacher should know
and recognize the different difficulties presented by the students,
which will help them to detect a specific alteration in the attentional
function. The purpose of this work is for the teacher to have the
knowledge and through this to develop the ability to detect in time any
difficulty that the student has and request the DECE to intervene and
guide the teacher, the family and the environment about the
behavioral disorder.
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Since they are currently very common, the protocols issued by the
Undersecretary of Specialized and Inclusive Education of the Ministry
of Education must be followed.
In which textually states that "Any student who has learning
difficulties for whatever cause, should receive the specialized help and
resources they need, either temporarily or permanently in the most
normalized educational context possible" (Undersecretary of
Specialized and Inclusive Education, 2016).
Even well-behaved children and adolescents can be difficult and
defiant at times. So, it is not easy to recognize the difference between
a strong-willed or emotional child and a child with oppositional defiant
disorder. It is normal to observe oppositional behavior at certain
stages of a child's development.
A teacher who has witnessed on several occasions that an adolescent
manifests a frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability,
argumentativeness, defiance, disobedience or resentment towards
parents or other authority figures, may be suffering from oppositional
defiant disorder. This disorder is more evident in children 8 years of
age, and these oppositional defiant disorders usually occur in the
family environment, eventually they can occur in other environments,
it is not a disorder that occurs at the time but rather is gradual and can
take months or years.
"In a significant proportion of cases, oppositional defiant disorder
constitutes an antecedent whose evolution will lead to dissocial
disorder" (Moreno and Oliver, 2001),
When intervening in the school it is necessary to have a differential
diagnosis in order to work accurately and effectively with children.
Shortening treatment times and avoiding the magnification of
symptoms. Therefore, when making a differential diagnosis for
(ODD), the following points should be taken into account, according
to the symptomatology presented by the children (Kaplan H. &
Sadock, 1999)
Oppositionist periods of development
Behavioral disorders
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder:
Oppositional Behaviors associated with mental retardation
Comprehensible language disorders
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Selective Mutism
Separation anxiety disorder
Psychotic Disorder and Mood Disorder
Specific learning disorder
(Duck and Loren, 2010) state that: "What is possible for the student
with special educational needs is possible for everyone (...) and this is
one of the most important maxims" the teacher, despite having held
several conversations with the student to provide help, states that
some impulsive behaviors had begun to occur (hitting a classmate) for
which he had been punished. But all the student does is victimize
himself ("I can't control myself"), etc., etc.
(De la Oliva, Martín & Veles de Medrano, 2005). This is how it
becomes a complicated situation, but it is no less true that the teacher
must adjust to an existing reality where students present a great
variety of traits and symptoms produced by alterations, disorders and
multiple special educational needs exposed by the student, and that
needs an integral attention to the diversity of people in the context and
to the differences that each human being reveals at the moment of
learning in each school stage, without this implying inferiority or
superiority, it can simply be understood as a revelation of diversity in
Upon detection, the teacher refers the case to the DECE for
intervention, the student with ADHD needs treatment for systematic
and/or asystematic learning disorders, making the therapeutic
approach according to the characteristics of their pathology. Once the
student has been identified as a student with learning problems due to
oppositional defiant disorder, protocols must be followed to help
him/her in his/her prompt recovery, for which it is necessary to adopt
internal measures. "School also influences the cognitive, emotional
and physical development of children, ranging from the development
of basic skills to higher intellectual demands along with moral and
social development. Accompanying them to become independent and
mature adults" (Rutter, 1985).
From this, the presence of parents or legal representatives will be
requested in order to inform them about the situation of their child
who will be exposed according to the report of the tutor in which the
psychological evaluation will be requested.
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It will also be made known to the parent that a student who presents
this oppositional defiant disorder cannot be controlled by the family
alone and needs to receive help from doctors, mental health
professionals and experts in child development. For this, the student
should be referred to one or more specialists in the field and they will
be the ones to determine the degree of hyperactivity and according to
their report should have a consultation with the neuropediatrician who
will determine the corresponding medication.
Behavioral treatment of oppositional defiant disorder involves
learning skills to help build positive family interactions and control
problem behavior. Additional therapy, and possibly medication, may
be needed to treat related mental health disorders. The help and
guidance of educational psychologists to parents and teachers to
stimulate both cognitive and behavioral development of the student is
very essential, since these behaviors are developed in the family and
social educational environments.
The most affected by this disorder are boys, more than in women
before puberty, the symptoms are similar, but in boys more aggressive
and confrontational behaviors are detected (Larroy & Puente, 1997)
points out that there is a higher percentage of children and
adolescents, and reiterates that it is more frequent in boys than in girls,
although after adolescence there are no differences between the sexes".
Contrary to what happens with other disorders, in this case there are
few definitional criteria (Jimenez, 1994) "it is difficult to point out
general defining features applicable to the subjects supposedly
affected by the disorder without being forced to reach diagnostic
In this case, the parents have complied with all protocols and have
taken the recovery of the child very seriously, her son, giving him a lot
of love and affection, compensating him with cuddles for his
achievements, has had a good recovery.
Materials and Methods
This article used an interpretative-hermeneutic methodology
(González et al., 2017). For this purpose, a review and analysis of a case
was carried out, as part of the teaching-learning process at the
university. In addition, the experience of certain authors as experts in
the development of infants was taken into account. An interview was
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applied, in which answers were obtained based on their perspective as
pedagogues and psychologists who understand SEN.
The establishment of these directions obeys a didactic purpose since,
in the practice of the teaching-learning process, they are worked and
assumed in an integrated, systematic and gradual manner, as well as
from a transversal and interdisciplinary conception in the curricula.
What has been the greatest difficulty you have had to deal with in the
DECE of the cases that are referred to you?
Mainly the lack of interest and co-responsibility on the part of the
parents who do not respond to the calls, summons or attend the
Campus, nor do they provide support and follow-up to those they
What has been the intervention model to deal with these cases?
Training and psycho-pedagogical workshops in the form of a School
for Parents to integrate and recognize the importance of school
activities, fundamentally, emotional development and educational co-
In your opinion, as a teacher, what special educational needs (SEN)
not associated with a disability do you identify most frequently?
ADHD disorders with symptomatic pictures of behavioral problems,
scattered attention, impulsivity, mood variations, disorganization,
inability to complete tasks, irritability.
What professionals and routines are involved in the psycho-
pedagogical intervention process?
Teachers, psychologists, doctors, neurologists, therapists, with
routines to verify if the student has understood the activity, task, exam,
structuring a study environment without distracters; generating well-
defined routines with clear rules and applying behavior modification
strategies with stimuli and affection. Carrying out clear and precise
communication during school activities; setting goals, teaching the
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importance of compliance and consequences; working with love,
understanding, flexibility and patience.
Researchers agree that these ADHD disorders are multi-causal; they
require intervention in all areas of development at the individual,
family, school and social levels. It is common for families of students
with ADHD to seek counseling in the social services of the Educational
and Health District of the area; therefore, parents should seek a
reengineering or restructuring of family activities and ask themselves
if they are devoting quality time rather than quantity to meet the needs
of their children.
Parents should attend to the integral - emotional development, not
only the economic needs, and listen to their children in order to
dialogue and share. In the cases in which the intervention,
identification and interpretation protocols were put into practice, it
was evidenced that the curricular adaptations had an impact and
improved the levels of performance and socioemotional behavior. The
UDAI sends the respective report to the DECE to coordinate with
teachers and authorities the development of the DIAC.7 The
percentages of students with ADHD are related to the evidence of
teachers' academic evaluations. It is of great concern that cases of
hyperactive/impulsive ADHD have increased in direct relation to the
loss of values or social breakdown and may persist into adulthood.
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Instructive for the